They have been used for crossbreeding with temperate (European) origin dairy breeds in many countries to combine their tropical adaptations (heat tolerance, tick resistance, disease resistance, fertility at higher temperatures, etc.) with the higher milk production found in temperate regions. It has been crossed with Jerseys in many places, including India, the United States, Australia, Sri Lanka, etc
Distribution and Habitat
As the name indicates this well-known breed comes from Sind Province now in
Pakistan. Herds of this breed have been established in different parts of India.
Soil and Climate
The soil varies from loam through sandy loam to sandy. Annual rainfall
ranges from 25 to 30 em and a large proportion of this precipitation is during
the months from July to October. Functional Characteristics
Red Sindhi cows are high milk yielders and are perhaps the most economical
milk producers amongst the Indian breeds of cattle. Yields as high as 5,450 kg
in a lactation of a little over 300 days have been recorded, but the average
lactation yield in well-maintained herds is 2,146 kg. Sindhi cows calve for the
first time at an average age of 41 n}onths. The maximum daily yield recorded
is 23.8 kg. The fat percentage avera¢e 5.02.
(a) General: The correct colour of the breed is deep dark-red, but variations from a dull yellow to almost ~ark brown are found (Plate J2). The bull, as
a rule, runs to a much darker red than the cow, its extremities be~ng almost
black when full grown. A white marking on the forehead with a little sprinkling
of white along the dewlap and' underneath the barrel is generally permitted,
but pronounced patches of white or grey colour indicate an admixture of
The Red Sindhi animals, either male or female, are of medium size and in
shape they are compact and symmetrical with the true wedge shape in the
case of the female. The average mature female weighs about 340 kg and the
male about 420 kg. The Sindhi cow is particularly docile and is a distinctive
(b) Head: The head is of moderate size, well proportioned with clear-cut
outlines which give an impression of centuries of good breeding. Forehead
is broad between eyes and flat or slightly protruding, carrying a short crop
of hair. The crest line is wide between horns with the poll slightly protruding
in the centre. Face is of medium length and is clear-cut, gradually tapering
into a square, and has a well-developed black muzzle with wide nostrils and
muscular lips. Eyes are fairly large, clear and well set apart with eyebrows
rather light. Ears are of medium size, fine clean-cut and are carried at an
angle. Generally, the skin inside is coloured butter yellow with a dark fringe
along the edge. The most common form of horns is short and thick. They
emerge laterally from the poll and curve upwards, forwards and inwards to end
in rather blunt points somewhat far apart.
(c) Body and Limbs: They are generally full and deep, and give a rugged
appearance though free from coarseness. Neck is generally short and fairly thick
at junction with the head but evenly joined at the shoulders. Dewlap is rather
abundant both in males and females but thin and hangs well in nice folds,
with a soft mellow feel. Jaws are strong with the dewlap extending well underneath the lower jaw. Chest is broad and deep with a lean brisket set broad and
evenly. Legs are straight and medium-sized but strong with fine clean bones.
Knees are flat but strong. Shoulders are not taD heavy and smoothly blend
into body. Hump is medium-sized but well developed in bull, slopping gradually
forward but with an abrupt fall at the back. Pasterns are medium-sized and
clean-cut. Coronet is well-defined with an even dark fringe. Hoofs are mediumsized, black, fairly hard, slightly pointed in front and set well apart.
Barrel is long, deep and well rounded with good proportion. Back is straight
and strong with prominent spinal processes and broad across the loins. Ribs
are long and broad, wide apart and well-sprung giving the wedge shape with
deep large abdomen firmly held up. Navel flap is of moderate size, thin and
clear-cut. In the male the sheath is inclined to be pendulous with the rudimentary teats prominent and well spaced at the base.
Hind-quarters are inclined to be rather narrow on the whole for really heavy
milkers, but rugged in appearance. Loins are fairly wide, and are angular. Hips
!end to be rather rounded. Rump is medium long and gently sloping. Pinbones are wide apart and set high. F1anks are deep, full and not heavy. Thighs
are well apart with the inside (twist) thin and straight, giving ample room for
the udder. Buttocks are wide but slightly rounded. Tail is slender and well set
with good, biack switch.
Legs are proportioned to the size of fine quality, and are well apart with
good feet. The bones are of good quality with strong clean-cut joints. Hocks
are strong and clean-cut. Hoofs are medium-sized, slightly tapering in front,
clean-cut and not much spreading.
Skin is fairly loose, pliable and mellow to touch. Colour is invariably black
underneath the hair. Hair are short arid even.
Escutcheon is generally pronounced on' the udder but covering a small area
du~ to the udder not extending far up at the back.
(d) Udder: Udder is of good size,. long, wide and deep, but generally pen-
, dulolls, though firillly attached to the body, extending well forward but not
much behind. Quarters are even but slightly indented between teats. Texture
is mellow but not meaty. Teats are of good uniform length and size, and
regularly] but not too squarely placed. Milk veins. are well developed, branching,
elastic, entering good milk wells but' are not very visible.
Average body measurements in the two sexes are presented in Table 12.