Balanced Dairy Ration Healthy Animals Better Production

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Balanced Dairy Ration.God Almighty has blessed Pakistan with the most suitable weather, fertile land and a wealth of animals of all kinds. Although Pakistan is considered one of those countries which have a maximum number of animals, yet we are far behind developed countries in the average

We have been rearing the animals in a traditional way for many centuries. We have failed to get the best production of meat and milk from them because we have never been able to provide them the best type of feed. Pakistan has unfortunately not made so much progress in dairy farming as it has made in agriculture. The main cause of our failure is the fact that we provide animals only fodder, which does not fulfill their nutritional requirements.

 It is very important that we give them a balanced feed to get more milk from them, to rear them well and to make our farms more profitable.

What Feed should be given to Animals?

 

The farmer must know everything about the nutritive value of seasonal fodders to make and provide a balanced diet to the  animals.

 

  1. Fodders of theSummer Season: Fodders of the Winter Season:
 
  
  1. Fodders:

 

 

Fodder Name

Production

(ton per acre)

Dry Fodder

(percent)

Protein

(percent)

Wheat straw

-

 

 

Sorghum stems

-

 

 

Maize stems

-

 

 

Maize cobs

-

 

 

Millet stems

-

 

 

Rice straw

 

-

 

 

Barseem (dry)

-

 

 

Alfalfa (dry)

-

 

 

 

Daily Feed for Animals: Fodder:

Fodder should be given at 10% of the bodyweight of the animal daily. In our country, this fodder is equal to 40 to 60 kgs daily. But the weight of the fodder must be accord- ing to its nutritious value too.

Ration/Concentrates:

 

We can feed ration/concentrates equal to one-half or one-third of the production of   milk to the animals. The quantity of concentrates to be fed depends on the production  of milk as well as fat percentage of milk. This quantity should be a bit more in summer because summer fodders have low protein percentatge.

Water:

 

Ideally animals should be untied and have free access to water. However, tied animals should always be given fresh drinkable water at least 3-4 times in winter and 6-7 times in summer and there should not be any restrictions on their movement. They must be given water soon after they are milked.

Minerals:

 There should be 2%  mineral mixture in fodder given to animals.

What is Ration/Concentrates?

 This is the feed in which there is less fiber but it is an important source of energy for the animals.

Characteristics of Ration or Concentrates:

 Lactating animals need 16-18% proteins. Balanced Ration has proteins, energy, min- erals, vitamins and fibers according to the nutritional requirements of  animals.

 The Concentrates of good quality are always tasty and animals love to eat it. In the beginning animals usually do not eat it because of the presence of ingredients of sunflower and maize gluton in it. These ingredients should not be more than 20-25% in the feed. But it is nevertheless important that they should be mixed in Concen- trates  making it tasty, yet inexpensive.

 These ingredients should be bought and stored when they are cheaper in the  market.

Common ingredients to be used for the preparation of balanced Ration and their nutritional profile:

 

Important ingredients of Ration or Concentrates:

 

Sources

of Vitamins

Sources

of Minerals

Sources of Energy

Sources of Proteins

Vitamin A

Salt

Wheat bran

Banola cake

Vitamin D

Bones powder

Maize bran

Mustard cake

Vitamin E

DCP

Rice bran

Banola meal

 

Mineral mixture

Rice polish

Mustard meal

 

 

Wheat

Sunflower cake

 

 

 

Maize

 

Sunflower meal

 

 

Sorghum

Maize cake

 

 

Millet

Maize gluton

 

 

Molasses and oil

Urea, etc.

 

What should be the quantity of ingredients in Concentrates or Ration?

Given in the table below is the quantity of the ingredients to be used in balanced Rations and the reasons why they are used:

 

 

Name of Ingredient

The maximum safe quantity (percent)

 

Reasons

Cotton seed cake

 

Price and quality; taste; eaten in low

quantity; proteins and price

Rapeseed cake

 

Protein level; milk does not taste  good

Sunflower cake

 

Quality and taste

Cotton seed meal

 

Price, protein

Rapeseed meal

 

Price and the quality of the protein

Canola meal

 

Not much poisonous; less production

Peanut meal

 

Bad taste

Maize carbohydrate 20 and 30%

 

Increases urination

Maize carbohydrate 60%

 

Diarrhea

 

Soyabean

 

 

Price

 

Urea

 

Less quantity of calcium


 

Calf Starter:

 

Calf Starter is the feed that we start giving the calf when it is one-week old. It should be given one kg feed daily from the age of 4 to 8 weeks. This preliminary feed not only enhances rumen development of calves but also plays an important role in their growth.

 

 

The Ingredients and Formula for the preparation of Calf Starter:

 

 

 

Ingredients

Quantity (percent)

Soyabean

 

Cotton seed

 

Maize

 

Wheat bran

 

Rice polish

 

Molasses

 

Vitamins/minerals

 

Mineral mixture/DCP

 

Total

 

 

Different Formulas for lactating Animals:

 

 

Here is the formula to prepare Concentrates for lactating animals on a domestic level so that the farmers can themselves prepare the best rations with minimum expense:

 

Ration Formula No. 1:

 

Serial No.

Ingredients of Feed

Quantity percent

 

Cotton seed cake

 

 

Maize carbohydrate 30%

 

 

Sunflower meal

 

 

Wheat bran

 

 

Rice polishing

 

 

Maize

 

 

Molasses

 

 

Mineral mixture

 

 

Total

 

Crude Protein (%) = 17.6 TDN (%) = 75.3

Price (per kg) Rs = 15.60

Ration Formula No. 2:

 

Serial No.

Ingredients of Feed

Quantity percent

 

Soyabean

 

 

Canola meal

 

 

Cotton seed cake

 

 

Wheat bran

 

 

Maize grains

 

 

Molasses

 

 

Mineral mixture

 

 

Urea

 

 

Total

 

Crude Protein (%) = 16.90

TDN (%) = 73.66

Price (per kg) Rs = 14.88

 

Ration Formula No. 3:

 

Serial No.

Ingredients of Feed

Quantity percent

 

Rapeseed cake

 

 

Cotton seed cake

 

 

Rice polishing

 

 

Wheat bran

 

 

Maize grains

 

 

Mineral mixture

 

 

Total

 

Crude Protein (%) = 16.17

TDN (%) = 73.43

Price (per kg) Rs = 15.80

 

 

Ration Formula No. 3: (with Soyabean)

 

Serial No.

Ingredients of Feed

Quantity percent

 

Soyabean

 

 

Sunflower meal

 

 

Wheat bran

 

 

Rice polish

 

 

Grains

 

 

Molasses

 

 

Mineral mixture

 

 

Total

 

 

Crude Protein (%) = 18.21

TDN (%) = 77.81

Price (per kg) Rs = 14.56


 

Ration Formula for dry Animals:

 

Serial No.

Ingredients of Feed

Quantity percent

 

Wheat Straw

 

 

Sunflower meal

 

 

Cotton seed cake

 

 

Urea

 

 

Mollasses

 

 

Mineral mixture

 

 

Total

 

 

 

Crude Protein (%)

=

12%

TDN (%)

=

68.0%

Price (Rs/ kg)

=

14.00

Daily Requirement

=

8.0 kg

Daily Expense (Rs)

=

112.0