About Camel Farming in Pakistan
Camel Farming is a piece of the livestock for camel cultivating suitable zones are rangelands of Balochistan, beachfront zones and desert zone of Cholistan, Thal, and Tharparker. In these areas, camel is a wellspring of drain and meat, transport office supplier and a hustling/moving creature, in this manner, assuming a critical part in the financial elevate of the neighborhood network. A crowd of 40 camel reproducers would be bought and brought up in a regular cultivating framework. The reproducer group is accepted to
bring forth 27 camel calves at regular intervals. The female calves would be held for drain and reproducing reason, while the male camels would be raised on the ranch for a long time and after that sold into the nearby market. The drain from the camel dairy animals would be sold straightforwardly to purchasers or handling organizations.
Cholistan desert has for some time been acclaimed for raising diverse types of animals and supply the fantastic nature of their items, which contribute a critical offer to national meat, drain and fleece yield. The general population dwelling in remote desert regions and migrants expend new crude or soured camel drain (a kind of yogurt). The supplement substance of the camel drain is tantamount to or far better than that of the cow drain. Of extraordinary significance for human nourishment in desert dry territories is its high vitamin C content
extending in the vicinity of 29 and 36 mg/liter drain, which adds up to three times the level of cow's drain and one and a half circumstances as much as in human drain. Nearly around every real city in Pakistan portable camel dairies are found. The migrant camel keeping families continue moving from one suburb region of the city to another and offer camel drain there. The announced drain yield extends in the vicinity of 900 and 4000 liters in a lactation time of 250 to over 500 days. The normal everyday yield under various administration frameworks is accounted for to differ from 3 to 8 liters. The females are drained twice to four times each day in Pakistan. As per an extremely humble gauge, the camel drain every year delivered in this nation is 0.24 million tons esteemed at Rs. 2.4 billion.
The male camel calves are sold subsequent to being raised for a long time. The female calves would be added to the rearing group and would imitate the following 5 years and add to the drain creation. Camel bovines would create around 4500 liters of drain for multi-year.
The regional viewpoint of camel
Livestock records for 52.2 percent of agricultural value-added, provides around 11.5 percent to GDP and affects the lives of 30 – 35 million people in rural areas. It is extremely labor-intensive and if proper attention is given to this sector, it will not only absorb more rural workforce but also help relieve rural poverty in Pakistan. 5 Pakistan teems with dromedaries but a few herds of two-humped camels (Bactrians) are also bred in the extreme northern areas. According to Qureshi et al. (1993), the camel population is unevenly spread over the country, mainly in four distinct ecologic zones of Pakistan:
(i) Sandy deserts (Thal and Cholistan in the Punjab and Thar in Sindh.
(ii) Coastal mangroves (Thatta, Badin, and Karachi districts of Sindh.
(iii) Mountainous tracts (all of Baluchistan, and the D.G. Khan and D.I. Khan districts of Punjab and NWFP, respectively.
(iv) Irrigated plains (all irrigated districts of Punjab and Sindh) In Pakistan, 0.829 million tons of camel milk is produced annually. 5 Moreover, 50 thousand tons of camel meat are produced annually, valued at Rs. 250 million (Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2007-08).
The native camel also indirectly contributes to the economy by surviving under the management methods of pastoralists, nomads and small farmers with surprisingly low inputs, mostly in the difficult and arid, drought-stricken areas and mountainous regions where the long-term survival of other livestock does not seem possible. Also, they do not compete with other livestock for their nutritive requirements, since most of the time they browse the tops of trees and shrubs.
About 22,500 camel hides are obtained annually in Pakistan and are used to manufacture saddlers, sandals and beautiful decorative articles, some of which are also exported. Camel hair produced in Pakistan amounts to 20 thousand tons and is used for making blankets, floor mats, tent cloth, and ropes. The calves are born with a soft woolly fleece, which is usually shorn once and is mixed with hair for manufacturing blankets (Khan et al., 2003). 6 Pakistani and Afghanistani camels are supposed to produce the highest yields of milk, up to 30 liters per day.
The Bactrian camel produces between 2.5-5 liters per day and the dromedary produces an average of 6-9 liters per day. Fast breeding of cows has created animals that can produce 40 liters per day in ideal conditions. Camels, with their ability to go 21 days without drinking water, and produce milk even when feeding on low-quality fodder, are a sustainable option for food security in difficult environments.
Opportunity in camel farming
Domesticated animals items give high-esteem protein as well as critical wellsprings of an extensive variety of basic micronutrients, specifically minerals, for example, iron and zinc, and vitamins, for example, vitamin A. For the vast lion's share of individuals on the planet, especially in creating nations, animals items remain a coveted sustenance for healthful esteem and taste. The current day by day accessibility of protein amount per capita in Pakistan getting from creature source including hamburger, lamb, poultry, and fish joined adds up to 11 grams.
This is far not exactly the prescribed every day dietary protein remittance from creature wellspring of 26 grams as per the World Health Organization principles. The indigenous dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) has kept on being the sole wellspring of nourishment, transport, and salary for a huge number of migrants, its potential for expanding sustenance supplies and family pay has nearly been overlooked by organizers of advancement undertakings and analysts. There is an adequate confirmation to show that the dromedary camel has pragmatic and one of a kind characteristics for meat and drain generation under serious and broad administration in the bone-dry and semiarid areas of Pakistan. Because of winning dry seasons and the pattern towards diminishing the creation of different creatures, the camel has increased more consideration as a method for spanning the hole amongst requests and supply.
Diminishing camel populace requests that we take care of the components contributing towards its decay. Late examinations have demonstrated that the camel is a prime contender for meeting the drain prerequisites of peaceful individuals, furthermore, and in addition, different populaces if oversaw, reproduced and encouraged legitimately. Moreover, with regards to change and an unnatural weather change, under-abused species like camel will locate a superior place to flourish and deliver even under cruel climatic conditions.
There are numerous virgin zones of innovative work in this species, requesting that appropriate drain recording, determination and reproducing hones are made to misuse its hereditary potential to the greatest. Some arranged and coordinated endeavors are required in the camel-populated territories of Cholistan and Balochistan to attempt innovative work on this species and associated matters. This is required to bring progressive changes and further upgrades in improved drain creation and help camel herders by enhancing their peaceful economy.
Highlights of Camel
Presentation of Camels There are two principle sorts of camels found on the planet. One bumped camel by and large called Dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) is found in the Arabian deserts, Iran, Afghanistan, Central, and South Asia and the other is Bactrian (Camelus bactrianus) two-bumped camel, which is found in focal Asia, Russia and China. In Pakistan, the dromedary sort of camels is found with a populace of around 1.00 million while the quantity of Bactrian is said to be roughly 1000 creatures just, which are accessible into a great degree northern territories of the nation or a couple are kept in the zoos.
Characteristics of Camel
The camels are viewed as the smartest creatures and can discover their way in the desert when there are no indications of the street. It is a one of a kind helper animal weight, which is stacked in sitting position and gets up with a twitch of its long neck. Camels don't should be shod. The level stack of the feet is horny and padded and assists the camel with walking on the sand without making any stable while the feet of different creatures sink into the sand. Because of this characteristic, the camel has been given the name "ship of the desert". Camel is preferable as riding creature over stallion. They are calmer and gentler than steeds.
Camels can convey more weight than steeds. Additionally, an all-around outlined camel saddle has more space to convey whatever additional apparatus. The long solid legs enable camels to cover awesome separations; they stroll up to 40 km for every day with 200 to 300 kg of stuff. Riding a camel is tranquil and serene.
The capacity of camel to enable its body temperature to vary in light of specific types of ecological pressure spares noteworthy measures of vitality and water. The very much created bump is loaded with fat that fills in as a store of water and nourishment at the season of starvation. The fat of mound gets broke up bit by bit amid starvation and gathers again when the camel gets satisfactory water and feed. Camel can eat anything when drained and hungry. Under extremely hot conditions, the camel may drink just every 8-10 days and free up to 30% of its live body weight through drying out. Other
creatures bite the dust at 10% live body misfortune through drying out. They can live without water for 3 days in summer and 7 days in winter. Be that as it may, there are a few cases of this creature staying without water for 20 to 40 days. Following 40 days the camel goes dazzled because of an inordinate lack of hydration.
The chest cushion encourages the creature to lay while sitting on the ground. Whatever is left of the body is spared from blackout against the ground. There are different cushions at the knee and half joint and before the joint of thighs. These keep the appendages from blackout against the ground. The camel rests less and has extraordinary energy of recognition. It remembers the brutal conduct, beating or even the misuse from the camel man and renders retribution at a suitable time.
Camels are hornless and need rankle bladder. Their ears little yet have awesome energy of hearing. Camel can hear and comprehend the voice of its herder from a long separation. Camel has conspicuous eyes with an extensive variety of vision. They are ensured by an overhanging upper top with long eyelashes, which shield the eyeballs from intense beams of the sun. The upper lip of the mouth has a cut in the center. The folds of the upper lip not just help in getting the twigs (thin shoots of the trees and
brambles) yet, in addition, empower the nostrils to cover to keep out the sand and tidy at the season of sand/clean tempests. Camel has an all-around created energy to smell. They can notice water 50 miles away. Camels urinate under 1 liter of pee for each day in sweltering summer days.
The Camels of Pakistan
Camel is the main animal species that was initially trained for the drain. In Pakistan camel populace achieved one million head with right around 20% of lactating camel creating around 0.6 million tons of drain every year ( Raziq et al, 2008). Drain and meat are the central results of the camel. The enormous measure of the drain isn't all around reported and never promoted. The Pakistani camel breeds are exceptionally expanded and can deliver up to 40 liters of drain for each day in normal brushing conditions. Such high yielding examples are found in Pakistan, particularly in desert territories of the nation.
Camel breeds in Pakistan
Regions Major Camel Breeds
Punjab: Bagri ( Booja ), Brela ( Thalocha ), Campbelpuri, Marecha
Balochistan: Brahvi , Kachhi , Kharani , Lassi , Makrani , Pishin, Rodbari
KPK: Gaddi, Ghulmani, Khader, Maya
Sindh: Dhatti , Kharai , Larri (Sindhi), Sakrai
Camel drain is somewhat saltier when contrasted with bovine's drain, three times as wealthy in Vitamin C and is known to be wealthy in press, unsaturated fats and B vitamins. It is a characteristic and fundamental nourishment thing in territories where there is a shortage of water and scrounge. Camel is most effective creature in drain generation on per unit feed utilization premise. Research demonstrates that dairy animals in rangelands conditions need 9.1 kg of dry issue feed to create one liter of drain, while camel delivers one liter of the drain by expending just 1.9 kg of dry issue feed under the same conditions. The protracted days without water don't discourage it.
Camel meat is comparatively high in polyunsaturated fatty acid in contrast to beef. This is a critical factor in decreasing the danger of cardiovascular diseases. Camel meat is also utilized for healing purposes for diseases such as hyperacidity, hypertension, pneumonia and respiratory disease. Camel lean meat holds about 77% water, 19% protein, 2.8% fat, and 1.2% ash with a small amount of intramuscular fat, which renders it a healthy food for humans. Camel meat has raspberry red to dark brown colour. The fat of the camel meat is white. Camel meat is prepared and used in burgers, patties, sausages etc. Camels reach live weights of about 650 kg at 7–8 years of age, and produce carcass weights ranging from 125 to 400 kg with dressing-out rate values from 55% to 70%. Camel carcasses carry about 57% muscle, 26% bone, and 17% fat.