introduction Kala teetar Black Francolin
Vegetation moving to cultivated crops and grassland to feed chiefly in the morning and the late afternoon. Species roosts on the ground in thicker growth of tall grasses, though often mount up on branches of trees for calling. Bird runs ahead of hunter predator for an escape, breaking cover with a loud whirl of wings, takes short, low, swift and strong flight with rapid beats of wings, punctuated with glides. This kala teetar francolin species has been providing hunting pleasure and dining table delicacy for the rich, source of bush meat for the poor, allurement for its keeper as a pet, and helps the farmer in controlling insect pest infestation.
The global population of Kala teetar black francolin is generally regarded as stable, yet wildlife enthusiasts in Pakistan feel concerned over the decline in its population due to excessive hunting, habitat loss and pesticide/herbicidal sprays. Future management to support population build-up requires conservation and sustainable utilization based upon a better understanding of its biology.
Studies on population biology of the species are very few, and the species is known from casual records on its distribution. Call-counts suggested population density of 395 birds/ km2 for an irrigated tract of Faisalabad central Punjab, Pakistan, and between 0.12 and 5.81/km2 for different forest plantations and sub-mountainous Punjab Pakistan.
Based upon transect and call counts data, Mahmood et al. (2010) suggested kala teetar black francolin average population density of 6/ km2 for Lehri National Park (northern Punjab, Pakistan), and higher densities during the autumn. No study is available on covey size, dispersion, sex and age structure, annual population fluctuations, etc. A good population of kala teetar black francolin is present under the protection of Lal Suhanra National Park (Pakistan, LSNP).
Present report presents the results of a study on different population biology variables of black francolin in Lal Suhanra National Park (LSNP) undertaken between 1993 and 2004 with the hypothesis that the population of the species maintained under reasonable natural conditions with a minimum of human-caused stress can provide some basic insight into hither-to little known population biology of this francolin species.