Cassava root (Manihot esculenta)

Comments · 615 Views

Cassava is classified as either sweet or bitter. Like other roots and tubers, both bitter and sweet varieties of cassava contain antinutritional factors and toxins, with the bitter varieties containing much larger amounts.[6] It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper pre

Synonyms:  Jatropha  manihot,  Jatropha  dulcis

Common names: Tapioca, Manioc, Mandioca, Brazil arrowroot, Para arrowroot, Rio arrowroot,  Yucca

Local names: Hindi: Shakarkand Manipuri Umangra Marathi: Prochugaali Chine, Pavde-pharin Tamil: Maravallikkilanku, Allvallikizhangu Malayalam: Kollikkilannu, Maraccini, Marakkilannu Telugu: Karrapendalamu Kannada: Kanagale, Mara genasu, Baragaaladagedde Oriya: Kaatokonda Mizo: Pangbal Sanskrit:  Tarukandah,  Kalpakandah

Cassava is  a  tall  semiwoody  perennial  shrub  or  a small tree (4 m height) with large palmately compound leaves. It looks deceptively similar to  the

 

castor bean plant. The plant is cultivated widely    in

Cassava root

 

the tropics and subtropics, including India and Sri Lanka for its tuberous edible roots, which are 8-30 cm in long and 1-3 cm in diameter. They grow in outward pointing clusters from   the base of the stem just below the soil surface. In India, dried cassava roots are sold in    the name of tapioca chips, and the meal in the name of tapioca    flour.

Availability

In India, availability of cassava is 6.7 million tones (Srinivas and Anantharaman, 2005). Kerela, ranks 1st in cassava production and is largest producer with 50% of area and Tamil Nadu accounts for 32% of area and 9% area is in Andhra   Pradesh.

Nutritive value

It is a very good source of energy and rich in carbohydrates (NFE 92%). The crude protein content is 2.4% and TDN content is 67%.

Deleterious factor

Cassava roots contain a glucoside, linamarin, which when acted up on by enzyme liberates prussic acid. The peeled roots contain much less prussic acid than unpeeled roots because most of the prussic acid is in the skin. There are two varieties of cassava: (1) Bitter varieties with roots containing 0.02-0.03% prussic acid. These have to be processed before being  used as feed. (2) Sweet varieties with roots containing less than 0.01% prussic acid. These can be used raw for feeding. Most commercial varieties belong to this group. Usually the bitter varieties have longer and thicker roots than the sweet  varieties.

Detoxification

The toxic substances can be removed by cooking or by drying slices of the roots for about two weeks (AFRIS, FAO).

Inclusion

In ruminants, it can be used up to 20-25% level in concentrate mixture with economic advantage provided it is mixed with other palatable feed stuffs. Both fresh and dried cassava roots are consumed by ruminants in different forms (sliced, chopped, ground). Dried cassava roots have given satisfactory, results as the principal energy source for dairy cattle (AFRIS, FAO).