Sahiwal Cow Best Breed for Tropical Countries

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Sahiwal cow (Bos indicus) is one of the best established dairy cattle breeds of tropical regions. Due to Sahiwal cattle tick resistance and heat tolerance features, Sahiwal breed is observed in many tropical countries of the world.

History and introduction of Sahiwal cow

Sahiwal is a breed of Zebu cattle which primarily is used in dairy production. Sahiwal originated from the Sahiwal district of Punjab province in Pakistan.[2] They produce the most milk of all zebu breeds, followed by the very similar Red Sindhi and Butana breeds

Sahiwals are among the largest zebu (humped) cattle, with a mature weight from 500-900 and 360-400 kg in males and females, respectively. The coat color is usually reddish Dunn or sorrel, but brown is common. The cows have large, sometimes pendulous udders with big teats. The bulls have a large hump, which often leans to one side, and a pendulous sheath. The dewlap is also wrinkled large. The horns are small and commonly loose in the female.

Sahiwal bulls have a fame for being lazy when used for draught, but they are quite fit for heavy and slow work. According to Punjab Livestock Census 2006, 2.75 million cattle of Sahiwal cattle are available in the province. The purebred group is declining over the years due to crossbreeding and shift in the agriculture system. In the past, the genetic trend continued static because of the great rate of inbreeding in recorded herds. Due to its highest importance and unique characteristics, it needs protection as a pure breed. The best way to keep the Sahiwal breed is to keep it commercially viable under existing conditions.

Traits of commercial value such as milk yield need genetic improvement. An increase in milk and meat production by improving its production potential will not only enhance the socio-economic conditions of our farming community but it will also go a long way in bridging the gap of supply and demand of animal protein in the country. Realizing its.

The Sahiwal began in the region of Punjab, Pakistan. They were once kept in huge crowds by proficient herders called "Jungles". With the acquaintance of water system frameworks with the district, they started to be kept in littler numbers by the agriculturists of the area, who utilized them as a draft and dairy creatures.

History of Zebu cows taming returns to 7000 to 8000 years prior to Indus Valley show day Pakistan. Out of 450 tropical steers breeds, the zebu is the principle write, especially in the Indian subcontinent and in Africa. Topographically, Pakistan is a place that is known for its tremendous differences. The greater part of the nation lies in the sloping locales toward the north (Himalaya) and in the west. The rest is an expansive, level plain, met by the Indus and its tributaries.

The Sahiwal breed created on the Indus plain, basically in the locale of the Ganji bar currently including the regions of Sahiwal and Okara in Punjab. This locale is portrayed by a subtropical and, dry atmosphere, with yearly precipitation (fundamentally in July and August) of around 200 to 300 mm for every year just, and mid-year day temperatures ascending to +45 °C, or above. Until the start of this century, itinerant clans possessed the land, which for the most part was secured with wild vegetation. Sahiwal was the fundamental domesticated animals in the locale, being kept for dairy purposes. Over an extensive stretch, the choice was most likely construct just with respect to drain generation and shading. It was the local roaming clans privately called "Jungles" to who goes the credit of its constitution.

With the approach of water system work in 1914-15, the breed went under awesome weight, as the brushing terrains of its home tract began crushing and draft creatures in huge numbers were gotten to deal with different farming activities. The locals who prior completely relied upon the raising of cows were pushed to arrive development and since Sahiwal bulls were not proficient draft creatures, the accentuation moved on the generation and raising of Hissar and Haryana bullocks.

In 1915 and 1917, keeping in mind the end goal to help the protection of Sahiwal steers, the British Government empowered the advancement of three Dairy cultivates in private part, i.e. Jahangirabad and Allah Dad cows Farms in Multan District on 4190 and 4056 sections of land and Datar Singh Farm in Montgomery in 1920 on 485 sections of land. From these domesticated animals, Farms and the home tract of Sahiwal steers "Ganji Bar" a zone between waterways Ravi and Satluj importance bared dry fields with extremely meager shady trees, an expansive number of Sahiwal cows scattered in far-flung zones of Pakistan and at times to lands outside the sub-mainland. Bulls from grantee ranches were presented in Depalpur region of what is currently Okara area under the Montgomery (now called Sahiwal) Cattle Breeding Schemes in 1925 where 65 Sahiwal bulls (all reared at the Jahangirabad Grantee Cattle Farm) were disseminated.

Unadulterated Sahiwal crowds were created at Military Dairy Farms Lahore and Ferozpur (now in Indian Punjab) and at the Imperial Institute of Agricultural Research, Pusa (Behar, Eastern India). From these very much oversaw groups solid information ended up accessible on this indigenous breed. These and a few other comparable undertakings have been proceeded with as far back as in one frame or the other for the protection and change of Sahiwal breed.

The legislature of Punjab, Pakistan set up more ranches for the protection of the Sahiwal breed at Bahadurnagar District Okara amid 1962, at Fazilpur, District Rajanpur amid 1973, at Livestock Experiment Station Kalurkot District Bhakar amid 1979, at Livestock Experiment Station Khizarabad District Sargodha amid 1980. These ranches, which hone drain recording with the enlistment of family and execution information, now frame the dynamic rearing populace of Sahiwal dairy cattle. Albeit in excess of 2000 Sahiwal bovines are being kept up at these Government cultivates however they are not adequate for the regularly developing interest of this breed.

Today the Sahiwal is outstanding amongst other dairy types of Pakistan and is found in more than 29 nations. Because of their warmth resilience and high drain generation, they have been traded to other Asian nations and also Africa and the Caribbean. Principle bringing in nations are Australia, New Zealand, Kenya, China, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Bangladesh

Sahiwal Cattle

Distribution and Habitat

The home tract of this breed is the dry central and southern areas of former Punjab in the neighborhood of the Ravi and the Nili Bar, particularly Jbe Montgomery district, West Pakistan. In India a number of Sahiwal her~ have been established in the State of Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and West Bengal.

Soil and Climate

 
The area is sandy, except along the river banks (Sutlej and Ravi) and portions watered by the canals where silt has accumulated. Sandy loam and loam soils are predominant. The whole area is undulating plain. A very large portion of the land is under canal irrigation. The average rainfall of the area is about 25 to 30 cm with an average number of 23 rainy days from April to October and 8 rainy days during the rest of the year. The heat of the summer is severe; the maximum temperature may go as high as 48°C. Winters are mild and -pleasant.
 

Functional Characteristics

Easy calving, better reproductive efficiency, and economic sustainability are its additional qualities. Sahiwal produces A2 type-safe milk whereas Holstein Friesian (Boss Taurus) produces A1 type milk which is associated as a risk factor for important human diseases.Sahiwal is one of the best Indian dairy breeds with milk yield averaging 2,270 kg in about 300 days. The milk yield of the selected animals goes as high as 4,775 kg in 305 days. The maximum daily yield recorded is 32.3 kg. Age at first calving is about 41 months, and the cows calve subsequently at
15-month intervals. Fat percentage average of 4.93. Sahiwal bullocks are very slow work-animals.

Physical Characteristics

General:

Sahiwal (Platt; 11) breed is known as the 'Lola' owing to the loose skin of animals. It is a heavy breed with an asymmetrical body, broad head, thick short horns, and fine loose skin. The female has the general appearance of a high-class animal with the capacity for feed and productiveness. In the male the hump is massive, the dewlap is voluminous and the sheath is pendulous. The most general co~ours are of various shades of red, fawn and roans with cor without white markings. Other colors are not debarred excepting all grey and all white.


Head: Forehead is of medium size and lean. In the male it is massive.
The face is broad between eyes and is dished. The muzzle is thread, not coarse, with wide-open nostrils, muscular lips and strong jaws. Eyes are mild, full and place. In males, the upper lid is heavy, but not exaggerated. Ears· are oj' medium size with black fringes and marks inside in many cases. Horns, if any, are short and thick and do not exceed 7·5 cm in length. Loose horns are
common in females

Body and Limbs: Neck is lean and long with the clean throat, and neatly joined to head and shoulders. A dewlap is fine but ample in the male. The chest is board, deep and full between and just back of;fore-legs. Legs are proportionate to the size and of fine quality. They are set well, apart, with good feet, and do not weave in walking. Shoulders are light and set at good distance fr~m pOInt to,'point, but thin at withers. Back is straight and strong; it is in level along the tail to head and long from hook' to pin. Ribs are amply sprung and wide apart, giving the shape of a wedge, with deep large abdomen firmly held up with strong muscles. Navel flap is prominent in a female.

The sheath is pendulous but .should not be abnormally loose or long, especially in young males. Hip bones are high and wide apart. Loins are broad and strong. Rump I; long to tail setting and nearly level between the hip bones and the highest point of the rump. Pin-bones are wide apart. The flanks are fine and hollow. Thighs are wide apart and flat, giving ample room for udder and dropping straight from pin-bone. The tail is long, fine and not coarse at setting, tapering to a good black switch and reaching well below the hocks. In partly colored animals' a white switch may be accepted.

Hocks are set well under body, wide apart with no tendency to straightness. Scissor hocks are objectional as they indicate weakness. Skin is loose and mellow and of fine quality. Hair is fine, short, straight and smooth, of correct colors, slightly curly on the forehead of males and apt to darken at extremities in males.

Udder: Udder is large, pliable, firmly suspended from the body and
not fleshy; broad, level and not deeply cut between teats. Fore-udder is fully
extending well forward towards the navel. The rear udder is well .rounded and
extended well up behind. The skin of the udder should be fine and mellow with
prominent veins. Teats are of good and uniform length and size and placed wide
apart. Milk veins are large, long, tortuous and elastic, entering large and
numerous orifices.