Tharparkar cattle or Thari Breed

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Tharparkar (Hindi:थारपारकर) (also known as White Sindhi, Cutchi and Thari)[1] is a breed of cattle originating in Tharparkar District in Sindh province in present day Pakistan.[2] It is a dual purpose breed known for both its milking and draught potential.

The name is derived from Thar Desert of Rajasthan adjoining Tharparkar area which was its usual habitat and place of origin. The cattle is of medium to large build and have white to gray skin.

Distribution and Habitat

Tharparkar cattle

The home of the Tharparkar breed is the arid, semi-desert tracts of south-east
Sind (Pakistan). It is found in greatest purity in the vicinity of Amarkot, Naukot,
Dhoro Naro and Char. This tract covers an area of about 20,700 lan2 and
consists largely of sand dunes running parallel from south-west to north-east
and is bounded on the south by the Rann or treeless desert of Kutch (Gujarat)
on the east and north-east by Jaisalmer and Jodhpur (Rajasthan), on the southeast by Bans Kantha district (Gujarat) and on the west by alluvial plain of
Sind (Pakistan).

Soil and Climate
The region known as Thar desert is a vast sparsely populated area consisting
largely of sand hills running parallel from south-west to north-east. These hills.
are locally known as bhilS. The depressions between the bhils act as. catchment
areas and are cultivated with quick-growing millets like bajra, and pulses like
guar, etc. The region known as Thar desert is a vast sparsely populated area consisting
relatively of mild climate throughout the year, while in the north the summers
and winters are a little more severe. Temperatures as high as 49°C have been
recorded. The normal rainfall of the area is about 20' cm, most of it falling
from July to September. Heat coupled with violent sand-laden winds makes
weather unpleasant.

Functional Characteristics
Tharparkar bullocks are of medium weight, and are useful for both plough
and carting. Tharparkar cattle in general are very hardy and are known to be
resistant to a number of tropical diseases. The cows are good milkers with lactation
yield averaging 1,136 kg even under desert conditions. But higher yields are
obtained under farm conditions, the average being 2,699 kg in 305 days. ,Milk
yield as high as 5,022 kg in 305 days in individual selected cases have also
been recorded. The maximum daily yield recorded is 23.5 kg. Age at the first
calving ranges from 24 to 72 months with a mean of 38.4 -+- 7.75 months.
Subsequent calvings take place at an interval of 15 to 16 months. The fat percentage averages 4.97.

Physical Characteristics
(a) General: A typical Tharparkar is a deep, stockily-built animal of
medium size and good quality with straight limbs and good feet (Plate 13).
It has a strong well proportioned frame with good bones and joints of fine
(b) Head: Head is of medium size. Forehead is broad and flat or slightly
convex above the eyes. The front of the horns and face are practically inr one
plane; in bulls the convexity may be slightly more pronounced. Face is lean,
fine and slightly dished to the muzzle; the nostrils are broad and black; and
lips are muscular and jaws are strong. Eyes are full and placid. Ears are somewhat long, broad and slightly pendulous. A rich yellow colour of the skin
inside the ear is preferred. Horns are set well apart curving gradually upwards
and outwards in the same line as that of the poll, with blunt points inclined
inwards; they are moderately thick at the base, i.e., from 13 to 18 em in circumference just above the skin in cows and tapering gradually and are from about
18 to 23 cm in length as measured along the inner curve. In the male, the
horns are thicker, shorter and straighter than in the female.
(c) Body and Limbs: Neck is of medium length, clean-cut and neatly joined
to head and shoulders. Dewlap is loose and flexible but not voluminous; the
skin is fine and mellow. Chest is deep and full between and just behind the
forelegs. Breast is broad but not coarse" or heavy in the brisket. Shoulders are
light, with a good distance through point to point but thin at the withers.
The hump is moderately well developed in the male, but firm and placed in
front of the withers. The legs are comparatively short but proportionate to size
with strong knees and hocks and fine quality bones; the ankles are straight
and strong, the feet well rounded and of medium size, pasterns short, and the
legs carried straight so as not to weave in walking.
Back is strong, straight and moc;lerately long. Ribs are well-sprung from the
back and curving evenly with a large abdomen firmly held up. There is a welldefined flap of skin at the navel ~orresponding to the sheath in the male, but
it is not coarse or long. The sheath is of moderate length and not markedly
Loins are broad and strong, flat from side to side and as nearly level with
the hip bones as possible. Hips are broad and quarters long and drooping
slightly to the root of the tail. Rump and pin-bones are level and in line with
the back. Pin-bones are well apart with good length from hook to pin-bones.
Flanks are well let down and hollow in cows, not pendulous. Thighs are wide
and fairly muscular but given ample room -for the udder and dropping straight
from the pin-bones. Tail is thin, supple and hangs loosely so that the end of
the switch is 5 to 15 cm off ground. Switch is black. Hocks are well under
body and apart. Legs are with good bones. Hoofs are hard and black, moderate
in size, and have no tendency to turn out.
The skin is of fine quality, loose and mellow to touch. The colour of the
skin is black, except on the udder, under the belly, on the lower part of dewlap
and inside the ears where it is rich yellow. The hair are fine, short and straight,
but in the male they are slightly curly on the forehead. The colour is white
or grey, in some animals dark grey, with a light grey stripe along the backbone.
The face and extremities are of a darker shade than that of the body, and in
the bull, the neck,, and the fore- and hind-quarters are also darker.
(d) Udder: Udder is large and well developed in front and rear and is
carried well up at the back. Floor of the udder is nearly level and not deeply
cut between quarters. The skin of the udder is fine and mellow with a yellow
tinge and prominent veins. Teats are 8 to 10 cm long, uniform in thickness
and set at even distances.
Body Measurements
Averages for different body measurements in the two sexes are presented in
Points jor Disqualification
Boldly convex forehead; horns much thicker at back or too long are points
for disqualification