Distribution and Habitat
Karan Swiss breed has been evolved at the National Dairy Research Institute,
Kamal, in Haryana, by breeding the Sahiwal cows with the frozen semen at
Brown Swiss bulls imported from the USA with the objective of obtaining au
animal with high milk-producing ability of the exotic inheritance and the
hardiness of the Indian breed. This new breed is well adapted to the local
Soil and Climate
The Institute is located to the north of Kamal town, which is situated 250 In
above sea-level on 29.42°N latitude and 79.59°E longitude. The maximum
temperature during summer is 45°C and the minimum is almost 4°C in winter.
The tract is semi-arid. The average annual rainfall is 700 mm, with occasional
winter showers in December and January.
The average age at first calving is 30 months. The lactation yield is 3,355 kg
in 305 days. Milk yield as high as 8,172 kg in 305 days in individual cases
has been recorded. The maximum daily yield recorded is 43 kg. The fat percentage averages 4.78.
(a) General: The mature cow attains a body weight of 400-550 kg, while
a bull weighs 600-750 kg. The 1Jlales are strong, sturdy and useful as draft
animaJs. Animals (Plate 6) have three wedges, the characteristics of a good
The colour of the animal varies from light grey to deep brown; sometimes a
white spot is seen on the fore-head.
|(b) Head:||The forehead is flat to slightly dished. The poll is well projected.|
A whitish band is generally seen around the muzzle and a faint whitish band
around the upper eyelid. Eyes are mild, full and placid. Ears are small, oblong
and hairy from inside.
(c) Body and Limbs: Neck is of medium size. The dewlap varies from
loose to tight and sometimes it extends well underneath the lower jaw. Hump
is almost non-existing.
Barrel is long and deep. Navel flap varies Jorm tight to slightly loose.
In the males, the sheath is not much loose. The rudimentary teats are quite
prominent. They are useful for draft purposes.
Legs are proportionate in size and well set apart. The inter-digital space in
the hooves is very small. Hips and pin-bones are wide apart. The rump is long.
Tail varies in length and in some cases the switch of the tail reaches the
ground. Skin is tight and has a fine hairy coat
(d) Udder: Udder is of good size, wide, deep, long ·and mostly bowl--
shaped. The teats are cylindrical, pointed or round and of medium size. The
milk veins are well developed and tortuous.
Averages for different body measurements in the two sexes are given
in Table 6.