Can i feed to my cattles whole sugarcane?

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The use of whole sugarcane as cattle feed is common in India, Pakistan and South American countries. It probably originated as a summer fodder source when other fodder were not readily available.

Sugarcane is the preferred crop of farmers in many states, as it has a good increase in yield, and has a better biomass availability than traditional fodder. Harvesting is integrated and the workload is reduced by sugar factories. Farm laborers working in the sugarcane field put a pile of sugarcane on their heads, bicycles, or bullock carts, a common place in rural areas. However, it has been found that these dairy farmers are not aware of the nutrition available when most of the sugarcane is farmed. The present paper aims to present this information in an easy-to-understand format. Veterinarians are requested to inform this detail to their farmers.
sugarcane
Should there be a full cane plant for cows?
The answer is yes, provided that the other material is properly balanced. Let us first understand the basics of sugarcane milk and its possible side effects should be fed without a dietary supplement.

Nutrient Value of Sugarcane:
Nutrient values ​​of sugarcane are given in the table below. In general, sugarcane is low in crude protein and high in fiber. It is generally considered a low-quality feed, with high DM digestibility (74.19 to 86.27%) and organic matter digestibility (68.22 to 85.41%) suggesting its good potency. As ruminant feed. There seems to be a problem in educating farmers to balance feed to overcome the adverse effects of sugarcane feeding. A number of publications have shown that feeding sugarcane, supplemented with protein, minerals, and vitamins to support the rumen microflora, can overcome side effects. A product called "Sacrina" is available in Cuba containing 14% crude protein and 90% DM, which is prepared by adding 15 kg of urea and 5 kg of minerals to each ton of sliced ​​sugarcane. The mixture is dried before marketing.

Principles of sugarcane feed supplementation:
An important principle is that rumen microflora in cows fed with sugarcane must be supported to meet the needs of fermentable nitrogen (ammonia, urea) and nutrients (peptides, amino acids, minerals, and vitamins). It is also required to complement bypass proteins, glucose precursors and long-chain bypass fatty acids. Urea should not be fed at a rate of more than 2-3% of the concentrate or grain portion of the feed and should be limited to less than 1% of the total feed. In some countries, 10 kg of urea per ton of fresh sugarcane is added and fortified with minerals, vitamins, and propionate. A note of caution when supplementing urea; Do this in steps, gradually increasing the level of urea to enable rumen microflora to adapt to NPN use. Urea can be replaced with a supplement of leguminous feed such as lucerne @ 600 g / kg per 100 kg of live weight. Rice polishing @ 0.5 - 1.0 kg per day is rich in essential amino acids, starch, and lipids, and is considered the best source of sub-nutrients. Other protein supplements such as oilseed cake or fishmeal also give good results (such as raw soybeans, cotton-rich foods, soybean meal, corn/fish concentrates). When urea is supplemented, it should be combined with protein supplementation.

Feeding sugarcane to dairy cows:
Sugarcane incorporation into the diet should not exceed 40-45%. Protein supplementation at this level can occur through soybean meal + urea low level (10 g / kg DM), soybean meal + urea high level (17 g / kg DM), raw soybean or corn gluten meal. Of these, soybean meal + urea was found to be at low levels (control diet), with the most protein being milk. If lucerne or other leguminous feeds are available, these can be supplemented and in that case, urea supplementation should be avoided. Sugarcane is not recommended in high-producing dairy cows, especially during the peak. In India, feeding 20–22 kg of sugarcane to crossbred cows producing about 10–15 kg of milk per day is a common practice. But these cows have poor body condition and suffer from subfertility, especially parsley and delayed conception. This may be the average if fed an appropriately balanced feed as described above.
 
Sugarcane feeding in growing cattle:
Due to its low fiber digestibility, sugarcane can limit animal performance and the level of inclusion in the diet of growing cattle can be variable, ranging from 20 to 50%. In a feeding test, the weaning crossbred heifer was fed 70% chopped sugarcane and concentrated with 30% 13% protein, leading to high digestibility of protein and health parameters. In a feeding test in Cuba, crossbred calves were fed at 73% sugarcane feed-urea (10%) and concentrations (17%). The average daily gain to the animals reached 840g when offered to concentrate once a day and 950g when meditation was offered twice a day. It was suggested that crude protein and energy were better utilized when concentrated twice.

Sugarcane:
Sugarcane can also be preserved and conserved. However, silage due to its high proportion of soluble sugars becomes intoxicating and the nutrient value is severely depressed. To prevent these issues, it is recommended to ensure sugarcane soon after it is harvested. Bailing and wrapping in plastic sheets is a good option. Field studies show that silage quality is better if treated with urea (0.5%), calcium oxide (0.5%), sodium benzoate (0.1%) and Lactobacillus silage inoculants. Treated silage was found to be superior in terms of intake and composition of DM. A disadvantage in sugarcane treatment is that the intake of DM was lower than that of fresh sugarcane, but these cows had higher milk fat and total milk content. One potential benefit from ascertaining is that young actively growing sugarcane was inferior in feed value but aged mature sugarcane gave better quality silage. This is because the amount of sugar decreases with age and DM increases.

Drying Protection:
Sliced ​​sugarcane can be dried in the sun or dried in the oven. The cut cane is spread in a thin layer (not more than 4 cm) on a plastic sheet and dried in the sun and let it dry under sunlight in the day and mix 2-3 times a day. At night, the sliced ​​material should be kept in a shed.

Recommendation:
Sugarcane can be fed to produce dairy cows in a situation where traditional feed is not available. In general also, if properly supplemented, sugarcane can meet part of the feed requirements. From the available feed trial data, the following feeding strategy is recommended to feed cows milking around 10–12 kg of milk per day to farmers. 15-20 kg of sugarcane can be fed with the above-mentioned supplements consisting of vitamins, essential amino acids, long bypass chain fatty acids, CaO and other minerals. Energy requirements for concentrating and about 500 -600 grams per day and sodium/calcium propionate should be fed to feed 10 grams of protein per day.