That is, every part of the clone's DNA is exactly the same as the original copy. In this way, the cloning of an organism is called cloning. Do you know that by cloning a pure model of a cell, any other living part or an entire organism is created?
The body is made up of very small organisms called cells. These cells do their normal work which DNA tells them to do. DNA is called deoxyribonucleic acid which is the genetic code in all organisms. A child gets this genetic code from half the father and half from the mother. A child is made up of a single cell, that is, an egg cell that contains the DNA of both father and mother. This cell divides into millions to become a complete child. This process is called differentiation. Each cell is a copy of the original cell and has the same genetic code.
In the laboratory, there are two ways to prepare a pure model of an organism: Artificial Embryo Twinning and Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer.
Artificial Embryo Twinning
This is the following technological method of clone formation, which follows the natural process of generation. But unlike the natural process, this process is done in a Petri dish instead of the mother's womb. The embryonic cells developed in the Petri dish after mixing of sperm and egg are separated at an early stage. These embryonic cells are kept in the womb of a surrogate mother after being developed in a petri dish for a short time.
Both twins are genetically identical as twins develop from the same fertilized egg division.
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer, SCNT
Do you know that this is a modern technique of cloning? Its process is different from Artificial Embryo Twinning, but by this also a clone of an organism is prepared. It is also called nuclear transfer.
Let us study this process.
In this process, the somatic cell is removed from an organism and its nucleus is removed. The nucleus and all the DNA from the egg cell are removed and the nucleus extracted from the somatic cell is inserted into it. This causes them to behave like freshly fertilized eggs.
To start the fertilization process, electric waves are passed over them, which causes cell division. Under this process, identical clones are obtained by implanting the fully developed egg into the female's womb.
How does the cloning process happen?
For the cloning process, only the egg cell is required. Scientists extract DNA from an animal's cell and insert it into the egg. This egg is taken from another animal. Prior to the implantation process, the nucleus or DNA is removed from the egg with the help of a very fine needle.
1. Gene Cloning or Molecular Cloning
Under this, transgenic microorganisms or transgenic bacteria are first constructed using gene engineering. Clones of that GM (Genetically Modified) bacteria are then obtained by creating an appropriate environment. They are used in many functions such as human use, protein formation i.e. insulin, etc.
2. Reproductive Cloning
Under this, replication of an organism is made using somatic cell transfer techniques or other cloning techniques.
3. Therapeutic Cloning
Under this, embryonic column cells are produced to move or repair damaged tissues or organs.
Benefits of cloning
The cloning process is being carried out to provide suitability to plant growth, anti-disease and chemical-resistant ability.
The most advantageous feature of cloning is that it is possible to develop plant species that provide productivity in different climatic and adverse agro-climatic conditions. For example, preparing the varieties of plants that grow quickly in the desert by its technique.
Even the cloning technique has been considered effective in the development of forest-tree crops of national importance.
Good breeds of animals can be cloned with the help of this technique. Endangered animal birds can be cloned and saved from destruction.
Plastic surgery can be done easily with the help of this technique. Through the technology of human cloning, doctors will be able to create an exact pattern of biological structure similar to bone, marrow, fat, cartilage and cells from the interested person, which will have a miraculous effect on surgery. That is, in an accident, the damaged limbs of a person can be completely repaired.
Now cloning technique has become so common that it has become possible for parents to choose the sex of their child. They can choose their own characteristics. For example, if parents want their child to have Albert Einstein's IQ, then it is possible to develop such characteristics through cloning.
Scientists have made such plants with the help of cloning that drugs can be added to the plants. When humans consume such plants, they can also take medicines along with food nutrients. Many vaccines can also be developed in plants through cloning.
The female's eggs are taken out of the womb; It is fertilized with a sperm. When the egg is fertilized it can be transferred again to the mother's womb. As a result of this process, the mother can give birth to a normal child.
This process can also afflict animals: Reports suggest that surrogate animals were revealing some adverse consequences and that the animals being cloned were causing illnesses and even higher mortality rates.
Based on the research and development happening in the present time, the ill effects of the future cannot be estimated. This can change the class of mankind or can have dangerous effects on it.
Some other facts about cloning
Cloned animals grow in age faster than normal, native animals.
Scientists are trying to save some endangered species with the help of the cloning process.
In 2009, scientists at the National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI) Karnal developed the first clone 'Samarupa' of buffalo and then 'Garima'. In 2013 clone buffalo 'Garima II' gave birth to 'Mahima'.