Father of The Nation Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah
December 25, 1876: Muhammad Ali Jinnah is born in Karachi
Father's Name: Jinnah Bhai Poonja
Mother's Name: Mithi Bai
Jinnah Bhai and Mithi Bai got married in 1874
Sisters of Quaid-e-Azam: Rehmat, Mariam, Fatima and Sheerin
Brothers: Ahmed Ali, Bandey Ali
1882: Home tuition begins
1886: Admitted to Sind Madrasa tul Islam, Karachi. This high school to this day displays a bold inscription, "ENTER TO LEARN, GO FORTH TO SERVE."
1886 to 1892: Jinnah became an excellent young cricketer and captained the team. He also became an expert rider of horses. He loved horses because of their majestic stance, running with their heads high and chests prominent.
1890: The 14-year-old M.A. Jinnah saw a lawyer wearing a black gown in a court of law. He told his father: "Baba I will become a barrister."
1892: Frederick Croft, a British businessman and friend of Jinnah Bhai Poonja strongly advises that the junior Jinnah be sent to England for education.
1893: Jinnah played the role of Romeo for the Shakespeare drama company in London.
1894: M.A. Jinnah becomes a Barrister at Law at the age of 18. This stands as a record to this day.
1894: Jinnah starts using his world famous monocle for reading.
1896: M.A. Jinnah returns to Karachi.
1897 to 1900: Strives to establish his law practice in Bombay.
1900: He is appointed Presidency Magistrate in Bombay. He calls his younger sister, Fatima, from Karachi to Bombay to complete her education in a convent.
1903: Appointed legal advisor to the Bombay Municipal Corporation.
1906: At the age of 30, M.A. Jinnah becomes secretary to the "Grand Old Man of India", Dada Bhai Norojee of the All India Congress.
Journey to Political Heights:
1909: Jinnah is elected to represent in the Legislative Council of the Viceroy.
1913: Elected again for the Council 1913 towards London with the great Indian Leader Gopal Krishna Gokhle.
1913: Joins the Muslim League upon returning to India.
1915: Since 1913, Jinnah held the unique position of being a member of the All India Muslim League and The Legislative Council of the British government. He is considered the most respectable citizen of India at the age of 39.
1918: Jinnah married the "Flower of Bombay," Rattan Bai Dinshaw. The common interest between the 41-year-old groom and 18-year-old bride-was their fondness of horse riding. The Parsi Rattan Bai embraced Islam before marriage.
1919: The only child of M.A. Jinnah is born on Aug. 15-Dina Jinnah.
1920: Mohandas K. Gandhi renames the working committee of the Congress, from Home Rule league to the Hindi "Suraaj Sabha." At this juncture, Jinnah resigns from the Home Rule League.
1920's: Gandhi promotes Hindu fundamentalism and gains cheap popularity because of his antics. He declares, "If Muslims or Christians slaughter one cow, we will shed rivers of blood in India!"
1929: Mrs. Ratti Jinnah's untimely demise possibly due to Typhoid fever in Bombay. She was only 29.
1931: M. A. Jinnah is saddened by his wife's death. Disheartened by the politics of hatred propagated by Gandhi and Congress, Jinnah moves to London.
1931: Round Table Conference in London. Chaudhry Rehmat Ali tells Jinnah he will not accept crucifixion at the hands of Hindu extremists. Allama Iqbal present at the conference convinces M. A. Jinnah that Indian Muslims must have their independent homeland.
1933: Allama Iqbal writes to M.A. Jinnah "Muslims of India are looking up to you to lead them," Liaquat Ali Khan tells M.A. Jinnah "Indian Muslims need you."
1934: M.A. Jinnah quits his blooming practice in London and returns to his beautiful mansion in Mount Pleasant Road, Bombay.
1936: Jinnah establishes the All India Muslim Students Federation
1937: M.A. Jinnah has breathed a new life in to the Muslim League.
May 29, 1937: Allama Iqbal writes to Jinnah " The only safe guard for Muslims is to achieve a free home land for them. Don't you think the time has come for this demand? A great storm is nearing and Muslims deserve to look up to you to captain their ship."
1937: Jinnah declares "Even if we have to go through fire and blood we must march on to freedom, otherwise, we will forever remain poor, weak, illiterate, and slaves of Hindus.
Oct. 8, 1938 Karachi: The British have unleashed wolves on the Arabs in Palestine.
1938: Bombay, 3 a.m., August 14. A Hindu journalist asks Jinnah why he was staying awake so late?
Jinnah responded, "I am awake because my nation is sleeping."
1938: Jinnah visits Allahabad. He ruled the hearts and minds of students. They crowded the Allahabad railway station in multitudes. The railway traffic had to be stopped for 2 hours.
Mar.23, 1940: Meeting of All India Muslim League at Lahore. The Lahore Resolution (later on called the Pakistan Resolution) was passed.
1940: Everyone starts calling M.A. Jinnah as "Quaid-e-Azam" The great Leader.
1940: Quaid-e-Azam introduces his English newspaper "DAWN" to fight anti-Muslim propaganda.
July 26, 1943: A 30-year-old tall and stout man, Rafiq Sabir tried to assassinate Quaid-e-Azam with a dagger. The 67-year-old slender Jinnah calmly grabbed his wrist. His staff arrested the attacker. M. A. Jinnah proceeds with his work as if nothing happened.
1943: British author Beverly Nichols interviews a Jinnah in Bombay. He writes
"Dialogue with a Giant - M.A. Jinnah is the most prominent personality in Asia."
1945: The Working Committee of the Muslim League requests Quaid-e-Azam to accept becoming the Life President of the League. Quaid-e-Azam declines insisting on yearly elections.
Jan. 1946: Muslim League registers a resounding victory in general elections.
June 3, 1947: Quaid-e-Azam gives the great news of freedom to Indian Muslims. From All India Radio, Delhi he exclaims, "Pakistan Zindabad!"
Aug. 7, 1947: Jinnah flies from Delhi to Karachi.
Aug. 14,1947: Hindu fundamentalist partly RSS tries to assassinate Quaid-e-Azam as he is driven to the Government House. For some reason the bomb thrown on his car fails to explode. Quaid-e-Azam declines a personal bodyguard.
Apr. 15 1948: His health continues to decline. On medical advice, Jinnah temporarily moves to a scenic place, Ziyarat near Quetta but he refuses to stop working.
Jul 1, 1948: Comes to Karachi for the opening ceremony of the State Bank of Pakistan. Asserts, "The western economic system will not grant us prosperity. We will have to devise our destiny on the principle on human equality and social justice." This was the last official engagement of M.A. Jinnah.
Aug 29, 1948: "I have completed my mission" (at Ziyarat).
Sep. 11, 1948: Moves back to Karachi.
Sep.11, 1948: 10:20 pm, the great leader breathed his last at the Government House in Karachi.
Quaid-e-Azam MAJ had an astonishing degree of insight into the Qur'an.
Here is a little known comment from him:
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah presented the clearest possible vision of a true Islamic State.
In August 1941, Quaid-e-Azam gave an interview to the students of the Osmania University. The replies he gave to the questions asked by the students explain his depth and comprehension of the basic foundations of Islam. Here are excerpts from the interview:
Q. What are the essential features of religion and a religious state?
A. When I hear the word “religion,” my mind thinks at once, according to the English language and British usage, of private relations between man and God. But I know full well that according to Islam, the word is not restricted to the English connotation. I am neither a Maulwi nor a Mullah, nor do I claim knowledge of theology. But I have studied in my own way the Holy Quran and Islamic tenets. This magnificent book is full of guidance respecting all human life, whether spiritual, or economic, political or social, leaving no aspect untouched.
Q. What is the distinctive feature of the Islamic state?
A. There is a special feature of the Islamic state which must not be overlooked. There, obedience is due to God and God alone, which takes practical shape in the observance of the Quranic principles and commands. In Islam, obedience is due neither to a king, nor to a parliament, nor to any other organization.
It is the Quranic provisions which determine the limits of our freedom and restrictions in political and social spheres. In other words, the Islamic state is an agency for enforcement of the Quranic principles and injunctions.
[Muhammad Ali Jinnah's interview to the Student Union of Osmania University in Hyderabad, Deccan, 19 August 1941, as reported by Orient Press. Reproduced in Urdu in Roznama (Daily) Inqalab, January 1942. Also reported in "Husn-e-Kirdaar ka Naqsh-e-Tabinda" by Allama Ghulam A. Parwez,
“Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Mohammad Ali Jinnah did all three.”
[Prof Stanley Wolpert, University of California, in his JINNAH OF PAKISTAN]
“In 1946, Dr. JAL Patel took a chest x-ray of Quaid-e-Azam. The film showed tuberculosis. The great Quaid asked the doctor about his life expectancy. Dr. Patel informed him that he would probably live two years, unless he quit politics and took proper rest, in which case he might live four to five years. Quaid-e-Azam responded, “This means I have to work even harder. He worked tirelessly until he passed away in 1948 after reaching his destination. I say with complete confidence about this great man, “Never in history have so many people owed so much to a single person.”
[Syed Hashim Raza Saheb, a close companion of Quaid-e-Azam wrote in the preface of Dr. Shabbir Ahmed’s “Hamaray Quaid-e-Azam” and “Father of the Nation” 2001] 12 Oct 2013
Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada
Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was a combination of rare qualities. He had the charisma of Churchill, dignity of De Gaulle, greatness of Gandhiji, magnetism of Mandela and objectivity of Obama. His achievements are well known. In this article I shall deal with an unusual topic: the contribution of Mohammad Ali Jinnah and Mahatma Gandhi to the Constitution of India.
Edgar Snow, the well-known American author, noted: “Even if one only appraised Jinnah as a Barrister, it would be to acknowledge that he had won the most monumental Judgment in the history of the Bar. He had realized in the romantic ideal of Pakistan a case that could be fought and won.” Sir Stafford Cripps spoke of him as “a most accomplished lawyer, outstanding amongst Indian Lawyers and a fine Constitutionalist”.
Mohammad Ali Jinnah and Mahatma Gandhi were two outstanding leaders of the subcontinent. Both were barristers and political giants. In the subcontinent no constitutional scheme could work unless the two leaders agreed. Jinnah, Gandhi, and Dr B R Ambedkar participated in the Second Round Table Conference
(1931). Jinnah and Ambedkar worked together. Jinnah pleaded separate electorates for the Muslims and other minorities including the Harijans (Dalits). Dr Ambedkar supported Jinnah. Gandhi vehemently opposed the grant of separate electorates to the depressed classes.
The British announced the Communal Award on August 17, 1932, giving separate electorates, among others, to the Muslims and depressed classes. On August 18, Gandhi, who was already in jail, wrote to the British prime minister, that unless separate electorates for the depressed classes were rescinded, he would commence a fast unto death at noon on September 20, 1932. Gandhi went on the fast as threatened. When Gandhi’s condition deteriorated, Hindu leaders arranged a meeting between Ambedkar and Gandhi. Eventually an agreement was signed on September 24, 1932, and it went down in history as the Poona Pact. Gandhi broke his fast. It is unnecessary to refer to developments that took place from time to time; suffice it to say that the Poona pact did not work in practice.
It may be mentioned that over the years Jinnah and Ambedkar had cordial relations. On December 22, 1939, Jinnah gave a call for the celebration for the day of deliverance on the resignation of the Congress ministries. Dr Ambedkar surprised the Congress and joined the celebration. In a forceful speech, he seconded the resolution in the Bombay meeting. In 1941, Dr Ambedkar’s magnum opus, Thoughts on Pakistan, was published. The book supported the demand for Pakistan. Dr Ambedkar paid glowing tributes to Jinnah, his leadership and integrity. In or about 1945, Ambedkar approached Jinnah. Dr Ambedkar was establishing the Siddharth College and needed Rs 1.2 million. He had collected Rs 900,000 and requested Mr Jinnah to speak to Dalmiya to donate Rs 3 million to the college. Jinnah found a solution in a legal way and the college was established.
Dr Ambedkar worked for inter-dining and inter-marriage between the Harijans and other Hindu classes. As Dr Ambedkar’s first wife had died, on April 15, 1948, Dr Ambedkar married Ms Sharda Kabir, a Brahmin. The New York Times described the marriage as more significant than the wedding of a royalty to a commoner. The British Cabinet Mission arrived in India and met the political leaders. On May 16, 1946, the Cabinet Mission announced their proposals, according to which the
Mission contemplated a loose union, with three groups of provinces, the formation of a Constituent Assembly and an interim government. The Congress rushed and formed the government. The Muslim League joined the interim government on October 26, 1946, and included Jogindranath Mandal as the law minister.
The elections to the Constituent Assembly were held and Dr Ambedkar fielded candidates under the banner of the Scheduled Caste Federation. Dr Ambedkar and his colleagues were defeated so there was no way for him to get into the Constituent Assembly from Bombay Presidency. However, Jinnah came to his rescue. Jogindranath Mandal was elected to the Constituent Assembly from Bengal. Jinnah asked Mandal to resign to make room for Dr Ambedkar. Accordingly Dr Ambedkar was elected from East Bengal (The Makers of Indian Constitution by Sheshrao Chawan).
Now reference may be made to the role of Mahatma Gandhi in securing the role of Dr Ambedkar in the Constituent Assembly of India. Dr Ambedkar approached Gandhi through various friends. It so happened that Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Mrs Sarojini Naidu went to Gandhi to tell him that they were not finding a capable person to prepare the draft Constitution of India, and they were thinking of inviting a Constitutional expert like Sir Ivor Jennings. On hearing that, Gandhi instantly suggested the name of Dr Ambedkar.
Indrani Devi, wife of Jagjivan Ram, a Harijan leader who was in the Congress, records in her book Dekhi Suni Batain: “Ambedkar had started coming to our house. He requested Jagjivan Ram to put in a word to Gandhiji to have him included in the Cabinet. Before talking to Gandhiji, Jagjivan Ram spoke with Sardar Patel, who advised him to do as he thinks appropriate. Jagjivan Ram was in dual mind — Ambedkar had always opposed Gandhiji and the Congress, how could he now recommend his name to Gandhiji? Even then Jagjivan Ram in his large heartedness pleaded with Gandhiji on behalf of Ambedkar and requested him to speak to Pandit Nehru to have Ambedkar in the Cabinet.” That is how Dr Ambedkar was included in the Indian cabinet.
Ambedkar was made chairman of the Drafting Committee and in that capacity he introduced the draft Constitution before the Constituent Assembly. It may be mentioned that when Dr Ambedkar was discussing the provisional draft Constitution in the Constituent Assembly, Sir B N Rao was sent abroad to visit various countries including the US to discuss some of the provisions of the Constitution. Surprisingly, Justice Frankfurter came down most heavily on the due process clause. He told Rao that the provision that gave the judiciary power to review executive legislative action was in the first place undemocratic because it gave a few judges the power to veto legislation enacted by the representatives of the nation, throwing an unfair burden on the judiciary. Justice Learned Hand went a step further and said it would be better to have all Fundamental Rights as
moral precepts rather than as legal fetters in the Constitution (The Framing of India’s Constitution: Select Documents, Vol. 3 pg. 217-34). The Due Process clause was deleted from Article 21 of the Indian Constitution, which now reads: “No person shall be deprived of his right and personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.”
The language was borrowed from the Japanese and Irish Constitutions. However, in due course, progressive Judges like Krishna Iyer and PN Bhagwati by their illuminating interpretation gave “due process” its rightful place. It may be mentioned that in Pakistan Article 10-A has been added about Due Process.On December 26, 1949, the Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution with its 395 Articles and eight Schedules. The Constituent Assembly of India had worked strenuously for two years 11 months and 17 days.Dr Ambedkar in his speech spoke inter alia about:
a) Evils of Corruption;
b) Genuine Democracy;
c) Negative effects of hero worship.
Speaker after speaker paid glowing tributes to Ambedkar for his lucid, able and symmetrical speech and brilliant analysis of the Constitution. Pandit Nehru described him as the father of the Indian Constitution. As a befitting tribute to him a life size statue of Babasaheb Ambedkar has been installed in the compound of the Indian Parliament House.
If Mohammad Ali Jinnah had not got Dr B R Ambdekar elected to the Constituent Assembly from Bengal and Mahatma Gandhi had not advised Nehru to include him in the cabinet and make him the law minister, it would not have been possible for Ambedkar to make his contribution to the Constitution. To sum up, Jinnah and Gandhi’s contribution to the Constitution of India, though indirect, is well established.