There are different varieties of cold water pond fish.
They may be small or large. Some popular cold water pond fish include goldfish, koi, and orfe. Goldfish are frequently seen and enjoyed in garden ponds. These bright-colored fish adapt to many different conditions and are quite suitable for smaller ponds. Though koi are relatively beautiful fish to add to a garden pond, they are not appropriate for small ponds. These fish can actually reach about three feet in length. Orfe is sociable and does best when left with at least three or four other fish. They spend most of their time near the waterâ€™s surface in order to catch bugs. As with koi, these fish require a larger pond to accommodate them.
Generally, it is best to wait at least 24 hours before introducing any fish into a new pond. This will allow the pond to settle. Most cold-water fish are able to adapt well to changes in temperature. However, if they are introduced too quickly to cooler temperatures (under 50) the shock could be fatal to the fish. In order for fish to adjust more easily, allow both the pH levels and temperatures to equalize. For better results, the pH levels in the pond should stay within about 6.5 to 8.4 to ensure the health of the fish. Water levels that are around 24 inches and up are usually sufficient for all cold-water fish to survive year-round.
Coldwater fish eat frequently during the summer as they are extremely active. You will want to feed your fish often, however, do not feed more than what they can consume in a short period. You should also provide a high-protein content fish food that will help enable the fish to reserve fat for winter months. As the weather begins to cool in the fall and throughout winter, your fish will not eat. Their digestive systems become lethargic, and their metabolism will slow down dramatically. They will simply rest near the bottom of the pond until the warmer weather returns.
It is during this time, when temperatures drop below 50, that you should avoid feeding altogether. However, once warmer temperatures have returned in the spring, begin feeding fish an easily digested diet consisting of wheat germ. This will help the fish to adjust to regular feedings after a long winter break. All cold water pond fish should be fed the appropriate type of pond fish food in order to remain healthy. If the quality of food you are feeding the fish is inadequate, it can result in excessive waste production thereby, polluting the pond.
Do not over-clean your pond. It is recommended that you remove debris with a net in the spring. However, you should take care not to remove too much residue as the fish will feed on algae in the pond. In the fall, you may want to remove any fallen leaves as well as sludge that has accumulated in the pond.
Coldwater fish are able to survive through winter provided the pond does not freeze over. The dangers of cold water do not compare to the dangers associated with the buildup of toxic gases. This is what results when a pond is left frozen over for an extended period. Keeping an area of the pond open will allow the pond to take in air so these gases can escape. There are some things you can do to help prevent your pond from freezing. You can place a water pump just under the surface of the pond to keep the water open, use a heater or deicer preset for temperatures near freezing, or cover the pond. If you choose to cover the pond, you should raise it above the surface to allow for an even exchange of gases and insulating air.
Coldwater pond fish are interesting additions to any pond. If you take the proper precautions and provide appropriate care, you can maintain a stable environment for which your fish will thrive.